Is eToro Halal or Haram?

What is eToro in Forex Trading?


eToro is a popular online trading platform that offers individuals the opportunity to engage in forex trading. With its user-friendly interface and innovative features, eToro has become a preferred choice for traders of all levels. The platform provides access to a wide range of currency pairs, along with other financial instruments, and offers unique social trading and copy trading functionalities. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced trader, eToro provides the tools and resources to help you succeed in the exciting world of forex trading.

Key Features of eToro

Social Trading

Social trading on eToro enables users to connect, interact, and learn from a vibrant community of traders. It harnesses the collective wisdom of the community and allows users to follow, discuss, and even automatically copy the trades of successful traders.

Key Benefits of Social Trading on eToro:

  • Learning from Experts: Social trading provides an opportunity to observe and learn from experienced traders. You can access their trading strategies, insights, and market analysis, gaining valuable knowledge that can help you improve your own trading decisions.
  • Copy Trading: eToro’s innovative copy trading feature allows you to automatically replicate the trades of successful traders. With just a few clicks, you can choose to allocate a portion of your funds to copy a trader’s portfolio. This feature is particularly beneficial for beginners or those with limited time or knowledge to actively trade.
  • Community Interaction: Engaging with fellow traders is an essential aspect of social trading on eToro. You can participate in discussions, ask questions, and share your own insights. This interactive community fosters a supportive environment where you can exchange ideas and gain diverse perspectives.
  • Diversification: Social trading opens up opportunities to diversify your investment portfolio. By following and copying multiple traders with different strategies, you can spread your risk across various markets, asset classes, and trading styles.
  • Transparency: eToro’s social trading platform promotes transparency. You can access detailed profiles of traders, including their performance history, risk scores, and portfolio composition. This information allows you to make informed decisions when selecting traders to follow or copy.

How to Get Started with Social Trading on eToro:

  • Sign up for an eToro account if you haven’t already done so.
  • Complete the verification process and fund your account.
  • Explore the eToro platform and navigate to the social trading section.
  • Browse through the profiles of traders and their performance statistics.
  • Select traders to follow based on your preferences, risk tolerance, and investment goals.
  • Consider copying the trades of successful traders by allocating funds to their portfolios.
  • Monitor your copied trades, make adjustments as needed, and keep learning from the community.

Copy Trading

Copy trading on eToro allows you to automatically replicate the trades of skilled and experienced traders. By selecting traders to copy, you can mirror their trading strategies, benefiting from their insights and potentially achieving similar trading results.

Key Benefits of Copy Trading on eToro:

  • Access to Expertise: Copy trading provides access to a vast pool of expert traders on eToro. You can explore the profiles and track records of successful traders, examining their historical performance, risk scores, and portfolio composition. This valuable information empowers you to make informed decisions when selecting traders to copy.
  • Simplicity and Convenience: Copy trading eliminates the need for in-depth market analysis or extensive trading knowledge. Instead, you can rely on the expertise of the traders you choose to copy. With just a few clicks, you can allocate a portion of your funds to replicate their trades automatically. This simplicity and convenience make copy trading an attractive option, especially for those with limited time or experience.
  • Diversification: Copy trading allows you to diversify your investment portfolio by copying multiple traders. Since different traders employ various strategies and focus on different markets or instruments, copying a diverse set of traders can help spread your risk and potentially enhance your chances of success.
  • Learning Opportunity: Copy trading is not just about mirroring trades; it also offers a valuable learning opportunity. By observing the trades made by successful traders, you can gain insights into their decision-making process, risk management techniques, and market analysis. This knowledge can aid in your personal growth as a trader.
  • Control and Flexibility: eToro’s copy trading feature provides you with full control over your copied trades. You can customize your copied portfolio, adjust the allocation of funds, and even stop copying a trader whenever you desire. This flexibility allows you to adapt your copying strategy based on market conditions or your own preferences.

How to Get Started with Copy Trading on eToro:

  • Create an eToro account if you don’t have one already.
  • Complete the verification process and fund your account.
  • Explore the available traders on the eToro platform, considering their performance statistics and risk scores.
  • Select one or multiple traders to copy based on your preferences and investment goals.
  • Allocate funds to copy their trades, specifying the amount you wish to allocate for each trader.
  • Monitor your copied trades, review performance periodically, and make adjustments as necessary.

User-Friendly Interface

Key Features of eToro’s User-Friendly Interface:

  • Intuitive Navigation: eToro’s platform features a clean and organized layout, making it easy to navigate and find the information and tools you need. The user-friendly design ensures that you can quickly access essential features, such as placing trades, monitoring your portfolio, and interacting with the community.
  • Simple Account Setup: Getting started on eToro is hassle-free. The account creation process is straightforward, allowing you to sign up and verify your identity efficiently. Once you’re in, you’ll find a well-designed dashboard that presents a comprehensive overview of your trading activities and portfolio.
  • Educational Resources: eToro understands the importance of continuous learning for traders. The platform offers a range of educational resources, including tutorials, webinars, and a comprehensive knowledge base. These resources are easily accessible within the interface, empowering users to enhance their trading knowledge and skills.
  • Market Analysis Tools: eToro provides an array of analytical tools to help traders make informed decisions. The platform offers real-time charts, indicators, and customizable watchlists to track the performance of currency pairs and other financial instruments. These tools are user-friendly, enabling traders to analyze market trends and develop effective trading strategies.
  • Mobile Trading App: eToro offers a mobile application available for iOS and Android devices. The app provides a seamless mobile trading experience, allowing you to manage your trades, monitor the markets, and engage with the eToro community from anywhere at any time.
  • Multilingual Support: eToro caters to a global user base by offering multilingual support. The platform is available in multiple languages, ensuring that users from different regions can comfortably navigate and engage with the interface in their preferred language.
  • Customer Support: eToro’s commitment to user satisfaction is evident in its responsive customer support. If you have any questions or encounter issues while using the platform, you can reach out to their support team for assistance. They are readily available to address your concerns and provide guidance when needed.

Range of Financial Instruments

eToro offers a vast array of financial instruments, which tries to make sure to provide you a diverse trading experience within a single platform. Whether you’re interested in forex, stocks, commodities, cryptocurrencies, or more, eToro provides access to a comprehensive range of financial markets.

Key Features of eToro’s Range of Financial Instruments:

  • Forex Trading: eToro allows you to trade a wide variety of major, minor, and exotic currency pairs in the forex market. You can participate in the world’s largest and most liquid financial market, taking advantage of potential profit opportunities arising from currency fluctuations.
  • Stocks: eToro offers an extensive selection of stocks, including shares from leading companies across different industries and geographical regions. With eToro, you can invest in stocks and potentially benefit from dividend payments and capital appreciation.
  • Commodities: eToro provides access to popular commodities, such as gold, silver, oil, natural gas, and more. Trading commodities allows you to speculate on price movements in these markets, providing potential opportunities for profit.
  • Indices: eToro offers a range of global stock indices, allowing you to trade on the performance of major stock markets. By trading indices, you can gain exposure to a basket of stocks, providing diversification and the ability to speculate on overall market trends.
  • Cryptocurrencies: eToro is renowned for its cryptocurrency trading capabilities. You can trade a variety of popular cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, and many others. This presents an opportunity to participate in the dynamic and rapidly evolving world of digital currencies.
  • ETFs: eToro also features a selection of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs), which are investment funds traded on stock exchanges. ETFs provide exposure to various asset classes, sectors, or regions, allowing you to diversify your portfolio and potentially benefit from the performance of specific market segments.
  • Options: eToro offers options trading on selected stocks, allowing you to speculate on the price movement of these underlying assets within a specified time frame. Options trading can provide flexibility and risk management strategies in your investment approach.

Mobile Trading

The convenience and flexibility of mobile trading on eToro allows you to engage in the exciting world of trading directly from your smartphone or tablet. With eToro’s mobile trading app, you can seize opportunities and manage your trades on the go.

Key Features of eToro’s Mobile Trading App:

  • Seamless Trading Experience: eToro’s mobile app provides a seamless trading experience, offering the same powerful features and functionality as the desktop version. You can access real-time market data, execute trades, monitor your portfolio, and interact with the eToro community, all from the palm of your hand.
  • User-Friendly Interface: The mobile app is designed with a user-friendly interface, ensuring easy navigation and intuitive control. You can quickly find the information and tools you need, allowing you to make informed trading decisions while on the move.
  • Real-Time Notifications: Stay updated with real-time notifications on market events, trade executions, and important account updates. The app ensures you never miss out on crucial information, enabling you to respond promptly to market changes.
  • Trading Tools and Analysis: eToro’s mobile app provides access to a range of trading tools and analysis features. You can access interactive charts, indicators, and customizable watchlists, empowering you to perform technical analysis and make well-informed trading decisions.
  • Social Trading on the Go: Engage with the eToro community and participate in social trading directly from your mobile device. You can follow and copy successful traders, interact in discussions, and stay connected with fellow traders, all within the mobile app.
  • Secure and Reliable: eToro’s mobile app prioritizes security and reliability. Your personal and financial information is protected with robust encryption, and the app undergoes regular updates to ensure a stable and secure trading environment.
  • Multi-Device Synchronization: eToro’s mobile app seamlessly syncs with your desktop account, allowing you to switch between devices without any disruption. You can start a trade on your mobile device and continue monitoring or managing it on your computer, or vice versa.

Risk Management Tools

The comprehensive set of risk management tools provided by eToro empowers you to make informed decisions and effectively manage the risks associated with trading. With these tools at your disposal, you can strive for a more secure and controlled trading experience.

Key Risk Management Tools on eToro:

  • Stop Loss Orders: eToro allows you to set stop loss orders, which automatically close a trade when the market reaches a specified price level. This tool helps limit potential losses by allowing you to define the maximum amount of risk you are willing to take on a particular trade.
  • Take Profit Orders: Take profit orders enable you to set a target price at which your trade will automatically close, securing your desired profit. This tool allows you to lock in gains and avoid potential market reversals that could erode your profits.
  • Risk Score: eToro assigns a risk score to each trader on the platform, providing an indication of their historical trading volatility. By assessing the risk score of traders you intend to copy or follow, you can align your investment strategy with your risk tolerance and select traders whose risk profiles match your preferences.
  • Portfolio Diversification: eToro encourages portfolio diversification as a risk management strategy. By diversifying your investments across different asset classes, markets, and traders, you can reduce the impact of individual trade losses and potentially stabilize your overall portfolio performance.
  • Education and Knowledge Base: eToro offers a wealth of educational resources, including tutorials, webinars, and a comprehensive knowledge base. By expanding your trading knowledge, understanding market dynamics, and mastering risk management techniques, you can make informed decisions and navigate the markets more effectively.
  • Community Insights: eToro’s social trading community provides a platform for knowledge sharing and insights. Engaging with other traders and discussing strategies can help you gain different perspectives, enhance your risk management skills, and make more calculated trading decisions.
  • Personalized Risk Assessment: eToro encourages users to assess their risk tolerance through a personalized risk assessment questionnaire. By understanding your risk appetite, you can adjust your trading strategies, set appropriate risk management parameters, and align your trading activities with your financial goals.

Regulation and Security

The utmost importance that eToro places on regulation and security provides you with a safe and trustworthy environment for your trading activities. eToro is committed to maintaining high standards of regulatory compliance and implementing robust security measures to protect your personal and financial information.

Regulation and Oversight: eToro operates under the supervision and regulation of renowned financial authorities, ensuring adherence to strict standards and providing you with added peace of mind. Some of the notable regulatory bodies overseeing eToro’s operations include:

  • Financial Conduct Authority (FCA): eToro (UK) Ltd is authorized and regulated by the FCA, a reputable regulatory body based in the United Kingdom.
  • Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC): eToro (Europe) Ltd is regulated by CySEC, a well-established regulatory authority in Cyprus.
  • Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC): eToro AUS Capital Pty Ltd holds an Australian Financial Services License issued by ASIC, promoting transparency and accountability.

By operating within the framework of these respected regulatory bodies, eToro upholds industry standards, safeguarding the interests of its clients and promoting fair and ethical trading practices.

Security Measures: eToro prioritizes the security of your personal and financial data, employing stringent measures to protect against unauthorized access, fraud, and cyber threats. Here are some key security features implemented by eToro:

  • Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Encryption: eToro employs industry-standard SSL encryption technology to secure your data transmission, ensuring that sensitive information remains confidential and protected.
  • Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): eToro provides an additional layer of security through two-factor authentication. By enabling 2FA, you can add an extra step to the login process, enhancing the protection of your account.
  • Segregated Client Funds: eToro maintains strict segregation of client funds, keeping them separate from company funds. This practice ensures that your funds are protected and can be returned to you in the event of any unforeseen circumstances.
  • Regulatory Compliance: As mentioned earlier, eToro’s adherence to regulatory requirements ensures that its operations comply with industry standards, including risk management, capital adequacy, and client asset protection.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Auditing: eToro employs robust monitoring systems and conducts regular internal and external audits to detect and prevent any unauthorized or fraudulent activities, further bolstering the platform’s security measures.

Getting Started with eToro

To start trading forex on eToro, follow these steps:

  • Sign up for an eToro account on their website or through the mobile app.
  • Complete the verification process by providing the required documents.
  • Fund your account using one of the available payment methods.
  • Explore the platform, access the various trading features, and familiarize yourself with the interface.
  • Use the educational resources provided by eToro to enhance your trading knowledge and skills.
  • Begin trading by selecting your preferred currency pairs, analyzing the market, and executing trades.

Is eToro Halal or Haram?

Is eToro Halal or Haram
Is eToro Halal or Haram

Understanding the Shariah Compliance of eToro for Forex Trading

In order to explore the compatibility of eToro with Islamic principles and whether it is considered halal or haram for forex trading, it is essential to approach this topic with careful consideration, as it involves the intersection of financial practices and religious beliefs.

eToro and Islamic Principles

While eToro does not explicitly market itself as an Islamic trading platform, it acknowledges the importance of catering to diverse investor needs, including those who adhere to Islamic beliefs.

  • eToro’s Commitment to Diversity: eToro recognizes and respects the values and guidelines of Islamic finance. The platform aims to provide an inclusive environment for traders, offering services and features that are aligned with the principles of Islamic finance to the extent possible.
  • Swap-Free Accounts: One of the central concerns in Islamic finance is the prohibition of riba, or interest. Islamic principles discourage the giving or receiving of interest in financial transactions. In the context of forex trading, this can be a point of contention due to the accrual or payment of swap or rollover fees associated with holding positions overnight.
  • To address this concern, eToro offers swap-free accounts, also known as Islamic accounts or halal accounts. These accounts are designed to eliminate or minimize the impact of swap fees for clients who adhere to Islamic principles. Swap-free accounts on eToro are available for specific currency pairs and aim to provide a more compliant trading experience.
  • Consultation and Personal Responsibility: While eToro endeavors to accommodate Islamic principles with its swap-free accounts, it is important to note that each individual’s understanding and interpretation of Islamic finance may differ. As a trader who seeks to align their activities with Islamic principles, it is crucial to consult with qualified scholars or advisors who specialize in Islamic finance.

These knowledgeable individuals can provide guidance based on their understanding of Islamic principles and help you navigate the complexities of forex trading within the bounds of your religious beliefs. They can provide insights into the permissibility of engaging in forex trading on eToro, considering factors such as swap fees, spreads, commissions, and other trading-related costs.

Riba (Interest)

Riba is a significant consideration in Islamic finance, and it is crucial to understand its implications when engaging in financial transactions.

  • Riba and its Prohibition: Riba refers to the charging or receiving of interest on financial transactions. Islamic principles discourage riba as it is seen as exploitative and goes against the principles of fairness and justice. The prohibition of riba is based on the belief that wealth should be generated through legitimate means and shared in a just manner.
  • eToro and Riba: eToro is a platform that offers various financial instruments and trading opportunities, including forex trading. It is important to note that forex trading involves the potential accrual or payment of swap or rollover fees, which can be seen as interest charges. These fees are typically associated with positions held overnight.
  • Understanding Swap Fees on eToro: Swap fees are a common feature in forex trading and are based on the interest rate differentials between the two currencies in a currency pair. When a position is held overnight, a swap fee may be charged or earned, depending on the direction of the trade and the prevailing interest rates.
  • Consultation with Islamic Scholars or Advisors: Given the prohibition of riba in Islamic finance, it is recommended to consult with qualified scholars or advisors who specialize in Islamic finance. They can provide guidance on the permissibility of engaging in forex trading on eToro, considering factors such as swap fees and other charges.
  • Swap-Free Accounts on eToro: To accommodate clients who adhere to Islamic principles, eToro offers swap-free accounts, also known as Islamic accounts or halal accounts. These accounts are designed to eliminate or minimize the impact of swap fees, thereby aligning with Islamic finance principles. However, it is essential to note that other trading-related costs, such as spreads and commissions, may still apply.

User-Friendly Interface

The user-friendly interface of eToro is designed to simplify and enhance your trading experience on the platform. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced trader, eToro’s intuitive interface offers a seamless and accessible way to engage in various financial markets.

  • Streamlined Navigation: eToro’s interface features a streamlined navigation system that allows you to easily access essential features and information. The platform provides a clear layout with intuitive menus, making it effortless to navigate through different sections, including your portfolio, watchlists, trade execution, and social trading features.
  • Simplified Trading Execution: Executing trades on eToro is straightforward, even for those new to trading. With just a few clicks, you can open and close positions, set stop-loss and take-profit levels, and monitor your trades in real-time. The platform offers a range of order types, including market orders and limit orders, allowing you to implement your trading strategies with ease.
  • Comprehensive Asset Search: eToro provides a comprehensive asset search feature that enables you to quickly find the financial instruments you are interested in trading. Whether you are looking for specific stocks, cryptocurrencies, commodities, or forex pairs, the search function helps you locate the assets you want to trade efficiently.
  • Interactive Charts and Tools: eToro’s user-friendly interface includes interactive charts and a suite of analytical tools to assist you in making informed trading decisions. The platform offers a variety of charting options, timeframes, and technical indicators, empowering you to conduct thorough market analysis directly on the platform.
  • Social Trading Features: eToro’s user-friendly interface extends to its social trading features, which allow you to connect with other traders, share insights, and even copy the trades of successful investors. The interface facilitates seamless interaction with the eToro community, making it easy to discover, follow, and engage with other traders and their strategies.
  • Educational Resources: To support your trading journey, eToro provides a range of educational resources directly accessible from the platform. These resources include educational videos, webinars, articles, and market analysis, helping you deepen your understanding of trading concepts and strategies.
  • Mobile-Friendly Experience: eToro’s user-friendly interface extends to its mobile application, allowing you to trade on the go. The mobile app offers a similar user experience as the desktop version, enabling you to access your account, monitor trades, and execute orders conveniently from your smartphone or tablet.

eToro’s Swap-Free Accounts

The eToro offers swap-free accounts, also known as Islamic accounts or halal accounts, which are designed to accommodate clients who adhere to Islamic principles. These accounts aim to provide a more compliant trading experience by eliminating or minimizing the impact of swap fees associated with holding positions overnight.

  • Understanding Swap Fees: In forex trading, swap fees or rollover fees are charges that arise from the interest rate differentials between the currencies in a currency pair. When a position is held overnight, these fees may be accrued or paid, depending on the direction of the trade and the prevailing interest rates.
  • Swap-Free Accounts on eToro: eToro recognizes the importance of aligning its services with the principles of Islamic finance. To accommodate traders who seek to avoid interest charges in their transactions, eToro offers swap-free accounts.

Swap-free accounts on eToro are specifically designed to eliminate or minimize swap fees. They are available for certain currency pairs and aim to provide a trading environment that is compliant with Islamic principles.

Key Features of eToro’s Swap-Free Accounts:

  • Elimination of Swap Fees: Swap-free accounts on eToro are structured to eliminate or minimize the accrual or payment of swap fees, aligning with the prohibition of riba (interest) in Islamic finance.
  • Trading Flexibility: Swap-free accounts allow traders to engage in various trading activities, including forex trading, while ensuring compliance with Islamic principles.
  • Same Trading Conditions: Swap-free accounts on eToro generally maintain the same trading conditions as regular accounts, with access to a wide range of financial instruments and trading features.

Personal Responsibility and Consultation

There is a significance of personal responsibility and the need for consultation when engaging in trading activities on eToro. As a platform that provides access to various financial instruments and trading opportunities, eToro encourages its users to exercise due diligence and seek expert advice to make informed decisions.

  • Personal Responsibility: When it comes to trading on eToro or any other platform, it is essential to understand that you are personally responsible for your investment decisions and their outcomes. This includes conducting thorough research, assessing the risks involved, and making choices that align with your financial goals, risk tolerance, and personal circumstances.
  • It is important to recognize that trading involves inherent risks, and there are no guarantees of profits. By taking personal responsibility for your trading activities, you can make educated decisions, manage your risks effectively, and be accountable for the results.
  • Consultation and Expert Advice: Seeking consultation from knowledgeable individuals can be instrumental in making informed trading decisions. This is especially relevant when considering complex matters such as investment strategies, risk management, and compliance with specific financial or religious requirements.
  • Consultation with Financial Advisors: Engaging with a qualified financial advisor can provide valuable insights into market trends, investment strategies, and risk management techniques. Financial advisors can help you evaluate your financial goals, develop personalized investment plans, and navigate the intricacies of trading on platforms like eToro.
  • Consultation with Subject-Matter Experts: Depending on your specific needs, it may be necessary to consult with subject-matter experts who specialize in areas such as tax regulations, legal considerations, or specific trading methodologies. These experts can provide guidance tailored to your circumstances and help ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
  • Consultation with Religious Scholars or Advisors: If your trading activities need to adhere to religious principles, such as Islamic finance, consulting with qualified religious scholars or advisors who specialize in the field can provide essential guidance. They can help you navigate the compatibility of certain trading practices with your religious beliefs and provide insights based on their expertise.

Final Considerations

There are some important final considerations to keep in mind. These factors can help you make informed decisions, manage risks, and optimize your trading experience on the platform.

  • Education and Research: Take the time to educate yourself about trading concepts, strategies, and the financial instruments available on eToro. Use the platform’s educational resources, tutorials, and market analysis tools to enhance your knowledge. Conduct thorough research on the assets you wish to trade, keeping up with market trends and news.
  • Risk Management: Trading involves risks, and it is crucial to develop a risk management strategy. Set clear risk tolerance levels, define stop-loss orders to limit potential losses, and diversify your portfolio to spread risk. Avoid investing more than you can afford to lose and be cautious of emotional decision-making.
  • Practice and Demo Accounts: Utilize eToro’s practice or demo accounts to familiarize yourself with the platform and test your trading strategies in a risk-free environment. This allows you to gain confidence and refine your skills before committing real funds.
  • Consider Financial Goals: Establish clear financial goals and objectives before you start trading on eToro. Whether you aim for short-term gains or long-term investments, align your trading activities with your goals and adjust your strategies accordingly.
  • Regular Monitoring: Stay engaged and regularly monitor your trades and portfolio on eToro. Keep track of market trends, assess the performance of your investments, and make adjustments as needed. Regularly reviewing your trading activities can help you identify opportunities and make informed decisions.
  • Seek Professional Advice: Consider consulting with financial advisors, tax professionals, or other subject-matter experts who can provide personalized guidance based on your specific circumstances. They can offer insights into investment strategies, tax implications, regulatory compliance, and more.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, determining whether eToro is halal or haram for forex trading requires careful consideration and consultation with knowledgeable scholars or advisors in Islamic finance. The permissibility of engaging in forex trading on eToro depends on various factors, including the adherence to Islamic principles and the avoidance of riba (interest).

While eToro offers swap-free accounts designed to accommodate traders who seek to avoid interest charges, it is important to note that other trading-related costs such as spreads and commissions may still apply. Traders should also be mindful of potential exposure to market volatility and the risks associated with trading financial instruments.

To make an informed decision, it is recommended to seek guidance from qualified scholars or advisors who can provide specific and accurate information based on your religious beliefs and trading goals. They can assess the terms and conditions of eToro, consider the implications of riba, and provide guidance on the permissibility of engaging in forex trading on the platform.

Personal responsibility plays a significant role in ensuring compliance with religious principles. By conducting thorough research, seeking appropriate guidance, and assessing the compatibility of trading activities with Islamic principles, individuals can make informed choices that align with their beliefs.

It is crucial to remember that this conclusion provides a general overview and does not constitute religious or legal advice. Consulting with qualified scholars or advisors is essential to obtain accurate and personalized guidance based on individual circumstances.

Ultimately, each trader must evaluate the permissibility of engaging in forex trading on eToro based on their own religious beliefs and the guidance received from qualified authorities.

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